I gave in: Mini-Split A/C


A Hot Summer

2012 was a hot one. We’ve had at least 31 days over 90F, something which hasn’t happened since 1988, and July 2012 was the second warmest July on record in the Twin Cities. This is a departure from the norm; for example the average number of 90F days is 13 – we almost tripled it this year.  The 1930’s homes in our neighborhood weren’t built with AC, and retrofitting ductwork is tough.  And although I obsess over our energy use like some people obsess over Kim Kardashian, we do have to be able to function on those sweltering days.   Last year we struggled through the hot week with a single 8,000 BTU window unit upstairs, which was cumbersome, noisy, ineffective, and inefficient.

Enter the Mini-Split

This year we decided to give in and install something more efficient, permanent, attractive, and convenient – a Fujitsu ductless mini-split AC (our model is here).

These units come in various configurations, but simple ones like ours have an outdoor compressor/condenser similar to central AC and a single indoor air handler that hangs on the wall.  Refrigerant, power, and control lines run back to the outdoor unit.  Because it’s a matched set, and because there are no ducts to blow through a hot attic and leak air, they can be very efficient – ours is 25 SEER, 13.8 EER for cooling.  For comparison, Energy Star standards for central AC require >=14 SEER/ >=11 EER.

We weren’t going for perfect comfort, just something to keep it tolerable, and keep the upstairs cooler at night for sleeping.  One consideration with these units is that they are a single point of conditioning, and distribution can be an issue*.  We installed only one unit at the top of the stairs, figuring some cold air could fall and hot air could rise.  If we’d been going for more consistent whole-house comfort, at least one more head would have made sense, and we may still do that in the future.


In the end, we selected a single 12,000BTU (1 ton) unit after doing a whole-house heat gain analysis to determine the necessary cooling capacity.  I contacted the fine folks at The Neighborhood Energy Connection in Saint Paul to do the analysis.

*other configurations have a small unit above/below the living space with short duct runs to different rooms to solve this issue, at the cost of some efficiency.

Effectiveness & Energy Use

Overall, it’s been pretty good.  We put it in just before a perfect storm of hot:  103F days, both sides of the family visiting, and a birthday requiring use of the oven to bake a cake.  That was a struggle, but it kept things reasonable – around 80F downstairs – and much drier, which makes a huge difference.  Distribution was a bit of an issue; it’s hard to cool a hot kitchen with a unit on the 2nd floor.

Here might be a more representative day: Sept 11 2012 had a high of 93F.  We closed the house and set the unit to 74F at about 11:00AM, and turned it back off around 7pm.  The bigger spikes are likely the espresso machine.  ;)  Stuff later in the evening is cooking & running the dishwasher.


The graph shows indoor & outdoor temperatures, solar PV power production, and household power use.  Outdoor temp peaked at 93F at 4pm, and indoor temps on the first floor peaked at about 76.5F around 1pm.  On the energy side, we used 13kWh and produced about 13.5kWh.  If we’d anticipated a string of hot days, we would have just left it on 24/7 to keep things cool and dried out.

In July 2011, with the window unit struggling to keep up, we used 33kWh-38kWh per day for the hot days.  In July 2012, with the mini-split running 24/7 on the hottest days, we used between 19kWh and 28kWh per day – quite an improvement.

It Heats, Too

The unit can also work in reverse, as an air-source heat pump, with an HSPF of 12.0, meaning for every BTU watt-hour it consumes, it moves 12 BTUs of heat into the house.  Converted to Coefficient of Performance, this indicates that it transfers about 3.5 units of energy into the house for every unit of energy it consumes – or 3.5x more efficient than a resistance space heater.  It maintains rated heating capacity down to 20F outside, and continues to function even in -5F weather.

I haven’t yet decided if we’ll use it much for heating, but it might make sense in the “shoulder seasons” when our 83 AFUE boiler would be operating infrequently and at lower efficiency.  Because these electric units can heat and cool so efficiently, they are often used in the design of well-insulated net-zero or near-net-zero homes with PV installed.

The Verdict

Overall I’m pleased with this thing.  It’s quiet, efficient, attractive, and made the hottest weeks quite tolerable.  It helps that we’ve done air-sealing and insulation of our home, so the single unit is better able to meet our cooling load.  I may experiment with sun control screens on the south windows next year to cut down on solar heat gain.

It’s handier, so we did run AC more days than we did last year, which is a risk if we’re trying to conserve energy.  And although some studies have shown that window ACs actually save energy for that reason, in our case we used 588kWh in July 2011, and 488 kWh in July 2012, and July 2012r was hotter:

                    Cooling Degree Days
                    (Base65)   (Base50)
                  Month Dept. Month Dept.
                  Total from  Total from
                        Norm.       Norm.
July 2011          433   174   898   179
July 2012          475   199   940   202

Less energy + more comfort = win.  We might be tempted to put one more unit on the first floor next year.  I’m not sure how that will affect overall energy use, but because the home’s cooling load will be the same (and we won’t need a bunch of fans to blow the cool air downstairs) I wouldn’t expect it to rise significantly – we’ll see.

26 thoughts on “I gave in: Mini-Split A/C

  1. Depending on latitude, you may be able to benefit from external window shading/awnings that shade during the hottest months, yet still lets light in during the cooler months when the sun’s angle is lower. This is in some ways more practical than permanent window shading like films/screens which typically reduce the transmission of daylight making the rooms darker – so you turn on the lights more.

    • Just to be clear, what I was talking about was insect screens which block solar heat gain. I already have “normal” half-window screens, I’d get new full frames and put the solar screening in those. So it wouldn’t be permanent like a window film.

      I agree that an option which requires no effort, such as built-in passive solar design with proper overhangs, or awnings, might be nicer. My wife doesn’t like awnings though. :) We are talking about doing some renovations on the house, and I definitely want to take passive solar design into account.

    • Hi Mary! It’s not bad at all, I’ll update the post with a photo in a minute. And update that it was the NEC who did the heat load analysis for me, what was I thinking, leaving that out. :)

  2. Pingback: Heating with a Mini-Split? Looking at costs & emissions. | Eric's Blog

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    • I eventually decided your post wasn’t spam. ;)

      There are a lot of good mini-splits out there. If your concern is energy efficiency, I don’t think the model you link to is any better; it’s listed at 11.64 EER for cooling and a COP of 3.41 for heating;; the Fujitsu model I chose is rated at 13.8 EER for cooling and a COP of 3.516 for heating. However, the model you linked to has a larger cooling capacity, which can impact efficiency; there are 3 Fujitsu models in the line I chose from, and the smaller-capacity models are more efficient.

    • I’m not familiar with AC ratings in horsepower – but 1HP is about 2000BTU/h capacity, which is very small. And you didn’t give units for your 13×13 room, so I don’t know if that’s meters, feet, etc. Even so, at best a room size would yield only a very rough guess for AC requirements. To properly size an AC, you need to be able to calculate the cooling load of a room, which includes internal gains (people, refrigerators, computers), and external heat gains (solar, thermal transfer through walls, infiltration, etc), design temp for the region, etc.

      An undersized AC will obviously not reach the desired temp. But an oversized AC will cool the room very quickly without removing humidity; then you’ll be left with a cold, clammy room.

      If in doubt, I’d look for a rule of thumb published by the manufacturer of the AC you’re considering. That said, the Energy Star guidelines for window AC units say that 100-150 square feet would need around 5,000 BTU/h of cooling capacity.

  4. you don’t mention the price that you paid, fully inclusive. would you mind? I’ve been given a quote of $11K for a fujitsu system that is 12000 btu downstairs and 2 x 7000 btu systems upstairs, all off of one outdoor unit. that price includes everything. Was your price close?

  5. How many square feet is your home? I am getting all new windows so the last thing I want to do is put window ACs back in next summer. I was thinking that a mini-split would be perfect if we could get by with one head in our stairwell landing (the stairs turn 180° halfway up). Question is whether or not the unit will keep the whole house comfortable or not. We have about 700 sq feet of living space per floor and prefer to sleep with our bedroom door open anyway. Thanks for your article!

    • Our home is about 1700 square feet above ground now, and we now have 2 heads, one on each floor.
      When we put this one in, it was about 1200 square feet.
      Remember that it’s a point source of cooling, so distribution can be an issue. Halfway up the stairs, it’s probably not going to cool the 2nd floor much at all, because heat rises.
      How much cooling you need depends on the cooling load of your home, which goes beyond square feet – south-facing windows, wall & ceiling insulation, etc can all make a very big difference. A good cooling contractor would do a proper load calculation, and figure out how much cooling capacity you need. But even with the right AC tonnage, keep that point-source nature of a mini-split in mind. (We sometimes use floor fans to push the cool air around, on the hottest days).
      For what it’s worth, you can also get “ducted” mini-splits, with short duct runs off a head installed in the attic. more expensive to install, and not quite as efficient, but still a very good option.

  6. I am wondering about how effective the single unit is at keeping bedrooms cool on the second floor?

    I would love to install a single zone for efficiency and ease of installation, however I think a multi zone (one in each bedroom) would be more effective at cooling.

    • It is mounted on the second floor – we later added about 600 square feet, and put another unit on the first floor. It works pretty well, though we do sometimes use an oscillating fan to distribute the cool air around a bit more.
      One head unit per bedroom would almost certainly be oversized, and you will wind up with cold clammy bedrooms when it reaches the setpoint before it’s had a chance to dehumidify the room.
      Another option is a single unit in the attic with short duct runs to each bedroom and a central return – Fujitsu makes units like this.

      • Wondering about Fujitsu model numbers for “single unit in the attic with short duct runs…” I am not thrilled with mini-split linesets on outside of house, but was thinking one compressor outside and two heads to two bedrooms distributed from attic could work. Is this what you mean?

        Sounds like you have two heads, one upstairs and one downstairs. One compressor? How did you run lines from heads to compressor?

        • Hi Jennifer – I think this is the Fujitsu model; I’m sure a contractor could tell you more.
          We have 2 heads and 2 compressors, mostly because we installed them at two different times. That arrangement is slightly more efficient, too, though probably more expensive.
          The one downstairs is a very short line run over and up and through the wall, maybe 10 feet total.
          The one upstairs goes through the foundation, across the basement ceiling, back through the other side of the foundation, up the wall to the top of the 2nd story, and back through that wall to the head. It’s a long run. :)

  7. Have a aircon mini in a bonus room. Lineset is super hot in heat mode but no warm air coming from air handler. Any suggestions.?

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